Published by the Israel Democracy Institute, a research paper on the relations between the Arabs and Jews presents a set of findings and conclusions, most notably:
1. The system of relations between the Jews and Arabs within the State of Israel is complex and comprises three levels, which are not necessarily interrelated: the state, the society, and individual-personal levels. According to the research findings, “on the state level”, a lack of agreement on substantial issues can be clearly observed. By contrast, relations are remarkably less tense “on the society level” and even lesser “on the personal level”. What is more, relations are really positive in certain aspects.
2. The essential identities in competition among the Jews are the Israeli and Jewish identities. At the present time, those who identify themselves are “essentially Israelis” (38%) are greater than those who introduce themselves as “essentially Jews” (29%).
3. Among the Jews, secularism is closely linked to the definition of the “essentially Israeli”. The traditional identity is shared by the Israeli and Jewish identities. On the other hand, religiosity clearly gives weight to the choice of the Jewish identity as an essential one. Haredi Jews define the essential identity as both Jewish and Haredi.